On average, I spend about as much time editing as I do shooting. Sometimes a little more, sometimes a little less. Sometimes a LOT more, sometimes a lot less. If I'm learning a new editing technique or tool, the editing time goes way up. If I'm repeating something I've done in the past, the editing time goes way down.
As mentioned above, it's very important to get it as correct as possible in the camera. Be mindful of the lighting, the pose, the background - the better these are in your original shot, the easier it will be to finish the photo later.
If you're new to photography, the first thing you'll want to do is get your head around the exposure triangle. This is the way the three main camera settings (ISO, aperture, and shutter speed) work together to make your exposure. There's a good book for this, called Understanding Exposure
by Bryan Peterson. After that, it's practice. Shoot, read, evaluate your own images, evaluate other images, shoot more, submit for critique, shoot more, read more.
As for tutorials on post-processing: I'm a fan of the tutorials on lynda.com. I use Lightroom primarily, and Photoshop for the things that Lightroom can't accomplish; lynda has tons of great training on those tools as well as a host of other software. kelbytraining is also good, but I don't have a subscription to that.
It's important to understand the tools you're working with before blindly following someone else's tutorials. Since every photo is different, what works well for one photo might not work well for another photo - but if you understand your tools, you can adapt someone else's tutorial to work well for your own photo.
On a side note: It seems that many of the photos you've posted are a bit underexposed. Perhaps you're shooting in fully-automatic modes on the camera, and the camera is picking settings that underexpose. Or maybe your monitor's brightness is turned up too much, and you're decreasing the exposure in post. It's hard to say.